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Natural History of Nova Scotia Topics & Habitats: Shorebirds
Case study discusses the birds that use the shores and other coastal wetland habitats that provide transitions between fresh and salt waters and between land and sea. Information packet is available for download, and discusses the habitats, food supply, distribution and breeding of these shorebirds. Site links to additional case studies and habitats.
Grade Level: General public, Middle school, High school

Shorebirds: Winging Between Hemispheres
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service resource defines shorebird and identifies bird families making up this diverse group. Introduces migratory life style with examples of timing, routes, distances. Provides current population estimates, identifies threats and conservation efforts to protect them. Bibliography and links to other resources.
Grade Level: Middle school, High school

The World of Penguins
This detailed description of penguins, their geography, adaptations, and information on how to protect this flightless bird is a one-stop shop for all things penguin. The site is perfect for educators who need either a penguin primer or refresher in order to construct classroom activities or student research topics.
Grade Level: Middle school, High school, Undergraduate lower division, General public

Albatross Project
Students around the country can join scientists in tracking albatrosses in Hawaii. This site also gives in-depth information on the biology of these ocean-going birds. Aspects such as albatross size, life history, and flight are discussed in detail, complete with pictures. View maps of satellite-tracked "albies" that were part of an actually scientific project. Site is available in Spanish and German.
Grade Level: Middle school, High school

White Pelican
The American white pelican is still considered endangered in Alberta, Canada, where the population is increasing but fewer than half of the 20 known historic nesting islands are still in use. The site provides information on this magnificent bird: habitat, general biological data, risk factors, and management. External links to Canadian parks, nonprofit groups, and other species profiles also included.
Grade Level: Intermediate elementary, Middle school, High school, General public

Nature's Web Newsletter
Nature's Web is an exciting newsletter for children, featuring interesting and informative news on nature and the environment. Each newsletter includes features on aquatic life, bird life, plant life, useful web sites, and conservation. While more appropriate for younger audiences, older students may find the basic information to be a good refresher or jumping-off point for more complex topics.
Grade Level: Primary elementary, Intermediate elementary, Middle school, General public

OBIS Special Edition
The website for project OBIS-SEAMAP (Ocean Biogeographic Information System - Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations). Marine mammal, seabird and sea turtle data are organized into a spatially referenced database. The site allows you to map species ranges and also features a wealth of species profiles. The data sets contain survey information dating back to 1935.
Grade Level: Middle school, High school, Undergraduate lower division, Undergraduate upper division, Graduate or professional

Virtual Antarctica
Take a virtual field trip to the Antarctic. This site features a ship's log, expedition pages, and information on the ecology, science, and history of Antarctica. Explore the different creatures of this extreme environment and how they relate to each other. An excellent reference for all levels.
Grade Level: Primary elementary, Intermediate elementary, Middle school, High school

Oikonos Ocean Stewardship: Education and Outreach
Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge is a non-profit research, conservation, and education organization. They have developed curriculum that incorporates satellite telemetry research on the Black-footed albatross with plastic pollution prevention for middle and high school students. Several activities are available and are aligned to California Science Content Standards.
Grade Level: Middle school, High school, Undergraduate lower division

Penguin Adaptation
Designed for life in the sea, some species of penguins spend as much as 75% of their lives in the cold Antarctic water, coming out only to lay eggs and raise chicks. Heavy bones, flipper-shaped wings, streamlined body, paddle-like feet, insulating blubber, and watertight feathers all add to their efficiency and comfort underwater. This site features guided activities that show students how penguins have endured modifications to fit their habitat.
Grade Level: Intermediate elementary, Middle school

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 The Bridge is sponsored by NOAA Sea Grant and the National Marine Educators Association

Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
College of William and Mary